A) Pandit Dayanand was born on 12, february, 1824 in Tankara, near Morvi in the Kathiawad region ,now Rajkot district of Gujarat. His original name was Mool Shankar. His father’s name was Karshanji Lalji Tiwari and mother’s name was Yashodabai. Theirs was a Brahmin family. A tax collector, his father was a rich, prosperous and influential person. He was the head of an eminent Brahmin family of the village. When Mool Shankar was eight years old, Yajnopavita Sanskara, or the investiture with thread of the “twice-born” were performed. His father was a follower of Shiva and taught Dayanand Saraswati the ways to impress the Lord. Dayanand was also told the importance of keeping fasts. On the occasion of Shivratri, Dayanand had to sit awake the whole night in obedience to Lord Shiva. One such night, he saw a mouse eating the offerings to the God and running over the idol’s body. After seeing this, he questioned himself, if the God could not defend himself against a little mouse then how could he be the savior of the massive world.
B)The death of his younger sister and his uncle from cholera caused Dayananda to ponder the meaning of life and death and he started asking questions which worried his parents. He was to be married in his early teens, as was common in nineteenth-century India, but he decided marriage was not for him and in 1846 ran away from home. Dayananda spent nearly twenty-five years from 1845 to 1869 as a wandering ascetic, searching for religious truth. An ascetic is someone who gives up material goods and lives a life of self-denial, devoted to spiritual matters. He lived in jungles, in retreats in the Himalayan Mountains, and at a number of pilgrimage sites in northern India. During these years Dayananda practiced various forms of yoga. He became a disciple, or follower, of a well-known religious teacher, Virajanand Dandeesha, sometimes spelled Birajananda. Virajanand believed that Hinduism had strayed from its historical roots and that many of its practices had become impure. Dayananda Sarasvati promised Virajanand that he would devote his life to restoring the rightful place of the Vedas in the Hindu faith. He is well known as the founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement of the Vedic tradition.
C) The basic statement of Pandit Dayanand for preamble on his book ‘The Satyartha Prakasha’, has been of diplomatic nature that “I have not come to preach any new dogmas or religion, nor to establish a new order, nor be proclaimed a new Messiah or Pontiff. I have only brought before my people the light of the Vedic wisdom which had been hidden during the centuries of India’s thralldom.” “I accept as Dharma whatever is in full conformity with impartial justice, truthfulness and the like; that which is not opposed to the teachings of God as embodied in the Vedas. Whatever is not free from partiality and is unjust, partaking of untruth and the like, and opposed to the teachings of God as embodied in the Vedas—that I hold asadharma” He also said: “He, who after careful thinking, is ever ready to accept truth and reject falsehood; who counts the happiness of others as he does that of his own self, him I call just.” Satyarth Prakash. But in reality, he appears to have functioned contrary to his wishful intents by addressing most part of religious, heritage, political elements related to Governance of society in context for his period of times by none admission to sacredness in Sikh way of life already positioned many centuries ago from his revelations.
D) Pandit Dayanand spoke favorably for Brahmo Samaj and the Prarthna Samaj ,that they are on the right path. He expressed that although their system of belief has many objectionable aspects but also got a few good points such as:-
1. They have saved a small number of people form embracing Christianity.
2. They have helped to abolish idolatry so some extent.
3. They have freed people to some extent from the shackles of false books.
E) When questioned that What is his faith?, his reply was that Vedic. “We believe that the Vedaas alone are the supreme authority in the ascertainment of true religion – the true conduct of life. Whatever is enjoined by the Vedaas we hold to be right; whilst whatever is condemned by them we believe to be wrong. Therefore we say that our religion is Vedic. All men, especially the Aryas, should believe in the Vedaas and thereby cultivate unity in religion”. But the concept fro Arya limited to application targeting Rajput, Jat race of society and most other part of so called lower caste or backward caste were not brought in this new platform fold. Majority of them targeted were getting in the belief for SIKH WAY OF LIFE, hence platform acted to dissuade them from going away from their own fold of Brahaminism regulatory controls.
F) Important in the book ‘The Satyartha Prakasha’
The book on above title written by Ptd Daya Nand has many chapters & importance for Hindu civilization. The book contains 14 Chapters in the in the follow up for the basic TEN Aryan Samaj norms. The historian on introspections alleged that Panadit Ji took lead from the pattern of earlier religious book addressed as ‘Hadith’ brought out by the Prophet Muhammad regulating life conduct of a Muslim brotherhood with DO & DON’T for the community. The Hinduism as earlier discussed has no formal one GOD, religious /sacred single Book, neither one founding father, hence capitalized the vacuum for creation of method for life conduct by Hindu Diaspora. The faith in the form Sikhism being practiced by taking directions from the non formal guiding written literature on SIKHISM though all basics of Life were available in Shri Guru Granth Sahib. Pandit Ji utilized to list out natural human values under his baner for ‘The Satyartha Prakasha’ under his brand for the society other than Muslim /Chatitianity/Budhism & Jianism. The religious political leader of other India in a way made an attempt diluting Punjab culture, post Maharaja Ranjit Singh period narrating Hinduism to be seen through Aryan Samaj platform based on oldest VEDIC cultures. The 14 chapters got in them;
1 Is an exposition of “Om” and other names of God?
2 Treats of the up-bringing of children.
3 Treats of Brahmacharya, the duties and qualifications of cholars and teachers, good and bad books and the scheme of studies.
4 Treats of marriage and married life.
5 Treats of Vanaprastha, (the Order of Asceticism) and of Sanyas
Ashrama (the Order of Renunciation).
6 Treats of Raj Dharma (Science of Government).
7 Treats of the Veda and God.
8 Treats of the Creation, Sustenance and Dissolution of theUniverse.
9 Treats of knowledge and ignorance, and emancipation and bondage.
10 Treats of Conduct – desirable and undesirable, and of Diet –permissible and forbidden.
11 Contains a criticism of the various religions and sects prevailing in India.
12 Treat of the Charvaka, Buddha (Buddhist) and Jain religions.
13 Treats of Christianity (the Bible).
14 Treats of Muhammadism (Qur’an).
G) Chapter 4 treats of marriage and married life:
Ptd. Dayanand married in early age but became a sansysi, hence did not went through the actual experience of married life, relationship & responsibilities for wife & children but he classified marriage in 8 qualitative standards, mentioned on page 115.He wrote when to marry, whom not to marry, when to birth a child, how to treat spouse from the day of pregnancy .The language or indefthness touched on this enter in an area of virtual vougalirty. But himself, remained evasive when asked for his personal approach on marriage .The categorization made by him in 8 kinds of Marriages being best & in the quality hierarchy are such as:
1. Brahma.~ The marriage, by mutual consent, of two such persons as have, through the regular practice of Brahmacharya acquired perfect knowledge, righteousness, and culture, is called Brahma.
2. Deva.~ The giving away of a beautifully dressed daughter (by her father), to one, who officiates at a great Yajna, is called Deva.
3. A’rsha is that kind of marriage, solemnized in lieu of consideration received from the bridegroom.
4. Praajaapatya is the marriage relation into which both parties enter with sole object of furthering the cause of righteousness.
5. .A’sura is a form of marriage solemnized after both the bride and the bridegroom have been bribed.
6. Gaandharva is the reciprocal (sexual) congress of a youth and a maiden with a mutual desire proceeding from lust, in which (all social) laws have been utterly disregarded.
7. Raakhsasa is the forcible or fraudulent abduction of a maiden from her home.
8. Paishaacha is the forcible deduction of a girl, while she is sleeping, intoxicated or disordered in intellect.
H) Other Insite in Araya Samaj platform.
The Arya Samaj, which was founded in April 1875 at Bombay by Pandit Dayanand provd fame to Pandit ji with prefix respect for the tilte Swami. The Brahmans had anchored new religious ideas, though less in numerical numbers but happened to be most educated race regulating religious DO & DON’T do for centuries. The Arya Samaj engineered major support from the Jats who otherwise may have adopted Sikhism as that of present JATS (JATT) in Punjab. The Arya Samaj opened 131 branches in the following years in states: UttarPradesh – 74 Punjab – 35 Rajasthan – 8 Madhya Pradesh – 5 Bihar – 4 Maharashtra – 2 Karnataka – 1 Bengal – 1 Assam – 1 to spread message of India in Gujarat & Bengal .There was no significant activity or role by platform of Arya Samaj in; Kerala,Tamil Nadu, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Sindh & many other states of the then British India .
I)The invented Araya Samaj platform of an NGO was in continuity of awakening platforms prepared earlier on the name of Brahmo Samaj & than by Ramakrishna in Bengal cultivated by Pandit Viveka Nand in Bengal. The reader may be perplexed to know that a group of Brahmins travelled to Punjab capital of those times ‘Lahore ‘ to establish first NGO body for religious reforms desired for Gujarat /Bengal or other area but why they travelled to Punjab may have another story behind this. The British were more intelligent then combined intellect force available with Brahmin/Banias. British misused Hindu emotions in creation for new confused environment in Punjab for divide & rule policy. They used divisive virus for distancing good part of Governance provided by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.Pandit Daya Nand should have first focused reforms in most affected belt of population at the hands of Christianity and territory was their own area & not Punjab .Punjab had been living in its own aura of its culture & everyone including Muslim, Hindus were getting justice reasonably dispensed.
J)The membership for Arya Samaj involved the acceptance of the Ten Principles, including: the payment of one per cent of one’s income, either monthly or yearly, towards the revenues of the Samaj, attendance at meetings, upright conduct. The Arya Samaj opposes idolatry, animal sacrifice, and ancestor worship, a caste system based on birth rather than on merit, untouchably, child marriage, pilgrimages, priestly craft, and temple offerings. Every Arya Samaj was suppose to arrange for the teaching of Hindi and Sanskrit to such members as are unacquainted with those languages. Most of these were already brought on public platform by Guru Nanak Sahib during 1499 – 1539. The Ten Principals, finally drafted in 1875 by N.G.O. body titled Arya Samaj compared with the than already introduced 375 years ago in Punjab by Sikh Gurus now referred as Sikh way of life were put in practice .The narration for TEN is as follows;
1 :- The first cause of all true knowledge and all that is known through knowledge is God.
2 :- God (Ishwara) is Blissful, Existent, Formless, Infinite, Almighty, Omnipotent, Just, Merciful, All pervading, Omniscient, Eternal, Unborn, Endless, Unchangeable, Beginning less, Immortal, Imperishable, Fearless, Incomparable, Holy, Support of all and Creator of Universe. He alone is worthy of being worshipped.
3 .:- Vedas are the scripture of true knowledge. It is the first duty of the Arya’s to read them, teach them, hearing them being read and recite them.
4 .:-One should always be ready to accept Truth and give up Untruth.
5 :- One should do everything according to the dictates of Dharma, i.e. after due reflection over right and wrong.
6 :- Doing good to the whole world is the primary objective of this society, i.e. to look to its physical, spiritual and social welfare.
7 :- Let thy dealing with all be regulated by love and justice, in accordance with the dictates of Dharma.
8 :- One should promote knowledge (vidya) and dispel ignorance (avidya).
9 :- One should not be content with one’s own welfare alone, but should look for one’s welfare in the welfare of all.
10 :- One should regard oneself under restriction to follow altruistic rulings of society, while all should be free in following the rules of individual welfare.
4 Thereafter, Sikh scholar expressed that some local individuals, mostly in practice for priesthood were not happy with adoption or change of faith by Punjabis to Sikhism. They conspired to counter the growing numbers for Sikhs and apprehended threat of the amalgamation of old (none partitioned) Punjab Hindu Diaspora, other than of course two: Brahmins & Banians, in the naturalness of Sikhism, hence the best brains after storming sessions at Bombay brought out the concept by new method for living, in between traditional idolater Hinduism & Sikhism to be addressed as rules of ‘Arya Samaj’. Although these very so called religious leaders of Brahmins samaj were nowhere when Punjab needed them to defend in the prior for Mughal. The majority who were joining Sikhism way of life were Jats , Khatries, now addressed as backward class , weaker sections of society & not Brahmins or Banias who had introduced & intelligently channelized divisions in the society for personal benefits at the behest of British. Therefore, Non Punjabis continued to divide them prior to times of 1875, Bombay (Hindu) religious platform for economical exploitations of Punjab.