Ancient Human calender to Mughal times.

The Indus Valley Civilization, Also known as Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) was centered mostly in the western part of the Indian Subcontinent; it is considered that an early form of Hinduism was performed during this civilization. Some of the great cities of this civilization include Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. The cause of the destruction of these regions around 1700 BCE is debatable, although evidence suggests it was caused by natural disasters (especially flooding) and Indo-European invaders. Some of these invaders are also referred to as the Aryan and their dominance contributed for creation for the Vedic period, which lasted from roughly 1500 BCE to 500 BCE. During this period, the Sanskrit language was reported developed, the Vedas, Epic hymns were written that told by tales of Aryan Gods. This is reported to be the basis for the Aryan religion, which eventually sophisticate and develop into Hinduism, a religion based on the caste system of class (consisted of the four varnas), the Brahman priesthood, and the developing semi-monotheism. The religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, which began in Indian sub-continent, were an important influence on South, East and Southeast Asia.

B) Let us look in the foundation levels for the society painted through different stories before us as on date. A temple area in Southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated to 10,000 BC has been presented as the beginning of the “Neolithic 1” culture in one part of the world. By 8500–8000 BC, farming communities began to spread to Anatolia, China, relics of a culture found for the period of 7000–8000 BC. Then Halafian culture appeared around 5500 BCE in the Levant, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia, the economies were based upon dry land agriculture.

C) The mother EARTH ‘Indian soil’ on one part of the GLOBE has witnessed hundreds of individuals in the form of a Dictatorship, Religion dominated Governance , Kingdoms/ Royalties referred with clubbing of certain models of Governance ,some as Dynasties, a few individuals, such as: Stone age (7000–3000 BC), ,Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1700 BC), Harappan Culture (3300–1300 BC), Vedic period (2000–500 BC), Delhi Sultanate, Khilji, Tughlaq, Lodi, Vijayanagara, Deccan Sultanates, Mughal Empire, Maratha Empire ,Durrani, Sikh Empire, Portuguese – Dutch – Danish – French India, Company Raj (1757–1858 AD), British rule (1858–1947 AD) & then journeyed to the present Co operative with formal TITLE for being democratic form of self Administration ,after Partition of India 1947.

D) The Chinese civilization otherwise is addressed to be one the oldest one in Asian sub continent. The china, prior to World War II, faced a civil war between Mao Zedong’s Communist party and Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist party; the Nationalists appeared to be in the lead. However, once the Japanese invaded in 1937, the two parties were forced to form a temporary cease-fire in order to defend China. The nationalists faced many military failures that caused them for loss of territory and subsequently, respect from the Chinese masses. In contrast, the communists’ use of guerrilla warfare (led by Lin Biao) proved effective against the Japanese’s conventional methods and put the Communist Party on top by 1945. They also gained popularity for the reforms they were already applying in controlled areas such as: land redistribution, more education, and health care. For the next four years, the nationalists were forced to retreat to the small island East of China, known as Taiwan (formerly known as Formosa), where they remain until today. In mainland China, the People’s Republic of China was established by the Communist Party, with Mao Zedong as its state chairman.

E) Prior to the spread of Islam, the Middle East was separated into small, weak states; the two most prominent were the Sassanid Empire in Persia (modern-day Iran), and the Byzantine Empire in Turkey. In the Arabian Peninsula (now Saudi Arabia), the nomadic Bedouin tribes dominated the desert, where they worshiped idols and remained in small clans tied together by kinship. Urbanization and agriculture was very limited, save for a few regions near the coast. Mecca and Medina were two of these cites that were important hubs for trade between Africa and Eurasia. This commerce was central to city-life, where most inhabitants were merchants. From 613 CE to 630 CE the Prophet Muhammad spread the Islam faith in the Arabian Desert, culminating in his victory at Mecca. He then unified the idolatrous tribes into an Islamic Empire, ruled by a religious and political leader, the caliph. They would proceed to conquer the Sassanid, and modern-day Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Libya. An Arabic navy was created that soon dominated the Mediterranean, crippled the Byzantine Empire, and put it under siege for centuries to come. Issues in deciding the caliphs to succeed (Prophet) Muhammad led to the Ridda wars and eventually the Sunni-Shia split, two different sects of Islam; the Sunni eventually became dominant and established the Umayyad Caliphate.

F) The Mongol Empire conquered a large part of Asia in the 13th century, an area extending from China to Europe. Medieval Asia was the kingdom of the Khans. Never before had any person controlled as much land as Genghis Khan. He built his power unifying separate Mongol tribes before expanding his kingdom south and west. He and his grandson, Kublai Khan, controlled lands in China, Burma, Central Asia, Russia, Iran, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Estimates are that the Mongol armies reduced the population of China by nearly a third. Genghis Khan was a pagan who tolerated nearly every religion, and their culture often suffered the harshest treatment from Mongol armies. The Khan armies pushed as far west as Jerusalem before being defeated in 1260. The Russian Empire began to expand into Asia from the 17th century, and would eventually take control of all of Siberia and most of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. The Russian are otherwise Muslim and Christians.

G) Between the 13th and 16th centuries, 33 different Sultans ruled the divided territory from its seat in Delhi. Babar, Ethnic Turks from Chinggis Khan., founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, first entered Punjab in 1523 but during his next invasion in 1524, he ransacked Lahore. His final invasion was launched during the winter of 1525-26 with his veteran army of 12,000 to meet the Lodi sultan’s huge but unwieldy and disunited force for more than 100,000 men, and he became master of Delhi after his Victory at Panipat on 21 April 1526 & ruled till 26 December 1530. Babur period believed to have been used to demolish the Rama Temple at Ajodhya and built Babri Mosque. However, from the three inscriptions which once adorned the surface of the mosque it becomes apparent that the mosque was constructed during his reign on the orders of Mir Baqi, who was one of the generals of Babur’s forces sent towards this region. The Mughal Empire remained between 1526 to 1757. Akbar was grandson of Babur who ruled India from 1556 to 1605. Akbar’s son, Jahangir, ruled of India from 1611 to 1622 & further Aurangzeb ruled from 1658 to 1707.

All Rights Reserved © 2017 www.punjabkbank.com Frontier Theme