Maharaja Ranjit Singh became master of Lahore on 7 July 1799. He then rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab, the land of the five rivers. Having accomplished this, he extended his empire further north and west to include the Kashmir Mountains and other Himalayan kingdoms, the Sind Sagar Doab, the Pothohar Plateau and trans-Indus regions right up to the foothills of the Sulaiman Mountains. Ranjit Singh encircled himself with an array of generals and soldiers. They were men from different clans, castes and regions such as :
Mahan Singh Mirpuri, Hari Singh Nalwa’, Desa Singh Majithia, Hukma Singh Chimni, Dewan Mokham , Chand, Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Veer Singh Dillon later Jallaha of Gurdaspore, Sawan Mal, Sirdar Gulab Singh Pahuwindia, Sham Singh Attariwala, Sardar Sangat Singh Saini, Sher Singh,Shaikh Elahi Bakhsh, General Ghause Khan (Mian Ghausa), Sultan Mahmud Khan (Son of Ghause Khan), Zorawar Singh, Chattar Singh Attariwalla, Balbhadra Kunwar – Gorkhali General who served for Ranjit Singh after the Anglo-Gorkha war (1814–1816), Mahan Singh Mirpuri, Akali Phula Singh, Lehna Singh Majithia, Misr Diwan Chand, Among his European Mercenary Generals were, Jean-François Allard, Jean-Baptiste Ventura – Italian (Modena),Paolo Di Avitabile – Italian (Naples),Claude August Court – French,Americans of note: Josiah Harlan – American general and later governor of Gujrat, Alexander Gardner – American (Scots – I).
B) The Battle of Jamrud in 1837 became the last confrontation between the Sikhs and the Afghans. Hari Singh Nalwa was one of the Greatest Generals in the World; seven feet height, knowledge for more then 6 languages, expert in war affairs got seriously injured, by enemy war tactics, when attacked in disguise of Sikh (Nihang) soldier, later died for the serious wounds. Gulab Singh was born in a Hindu Dogra Rajput family (1792–1857), was the first Raja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India. After the defeat of the Sikhs,on contributions by such (traitor ) unfaithful Raja of Kashmir, in the First Anglo-Sikh War, Gulab Singh, who earlier served as Prime Minister of the Sikhs state, received from the British all the lands in Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore to Gulab Singh for Nanakshahi (official monetary unit of Sikh Empire). 7,500,000/-.
The tragedy of circumstances is that Gulab Singh was considered a trusted one by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who in connivance with British, engineered attack on Kabul to remove Hari Singh Nalwa, the strongest /intelligent generals from the scene for future British designs. The war messages sent by Nalwa were blocked by Raja Gulab Singh, did not allowed to reach Maharaja Ranjit Singh when he had sought support to defend invasion on Kabul.
C) The Afghans, on demise of Nalwa, retreated to Kabul to deal with the Persian invasion on its western border in Herat and internal fighting between various princes. Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839, after a reign of nearly forty years, leaving seven sons by different queens. After the First Anglo-Sikh War, In 1845. Ranjit Singh’s Empire was grounded and all major decisions were managed by the British East India Company. The Army of Ranjit Singh was reduced, under the peace treaty with the British, to a nominal force. Those who gave the stiffest resistance to the British were severely punished and their wealth confiscated except for two Sikh Generals namely Majithias & Sandhawalis who signed the take over for British. In the spring of 1864, Maharani Jind Kaur was cremated at Nasik in Bombay on the Panchvati side of the river. The British authorities would not allow Dalip Singh to cremate his mother on the land of Punjab.
D) Maharaja Dalip Singh while under protection of British Queen, was alleged to have been converted to Christianity in his childhood. But upon reuniting with his mother during his adult years, he reconverted back to Sikhism, he then also petitioned the Crown to have his kingdom returned with no results. He never received any justice or the respect he deserved. It is an interesting situation that British were pioneer for protecting the rights of childhood on foreign Indian land advocating against child marriage but did criminal Act, forcing Maharaja Dalip Singh, to being a child to adopt Christianity, as an act of criminality by the British Queen, hence it was not natural adoption by choice but forced one or projected as such by British writers of those times, being faithful servants to Queen. Maharaja Dalip Singh died in 1893, in Paris, when he was in France, when he had three sons. The eldest Prince Victor was born on 10 July 1866, followed by Prince Frederick in 1868, and then Prince Albert Edward Alexander Dalip Singh (died at the age of thirteen), who was born on 20 August 1879. Princess Catherine was born on 27 October 1871, and was named Catherine Hilda Dalip Singh.
E) Princess Catherine died peacefully in her bed on the night of Sunday 8 November 1942 at her home in Penn, aged seventy-one. The cause of death was said to be heart failure. She was cremated. Princess Ada Irene Helen Beryl Dalip Singh, born on 25 October 1889. On 8 October 1926, she committed suicide; local fishermen dragged her body from the sea, off Monte Carlo. She was apparently much aggrieved with the death of her brother Prince Frederick who had died two months earlier. Princess Pauline Alexandrina Dalip Singh, born 26 December 1887, her death was unrecorded, she disappeared in war-torn France during the Second World War.
F) Despite Maharaja Ranjit Singh been successful, to position himself, where very few succeeded in a short span of time, but appear to have done historical ERRORS in judgments for selection of humans who could be safest for his next generations & kept strongest, comparatively sincerest Army General like Srd Hari Singh Nalua at distance locations. He was posted on a distance location in Kabul, displayed trust for political safety, closeness to people like DOGRAS of J&K who turned out to be major contributors for death of his family & kingdom. INDIA knows for the equality enjoyed by most of the citizens during rule for Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The best talent of all communities got opportunity to serve in his in his cabinet. The rule of law prevailed, respected, guided with judiciousness, resulting in minimum lowest crime rate in 40 years during ‘rule of Law’ to their definition. The social balance was maintained, law & order enforced in a way that not a single person qualified for the capital punishment – death during his regime.
G) Maharaja, Sir Yadavindra Singh of Patiala as a matter of fact, was the last symbol of Sikh sovereignty in Pepsu territory of Punjab, A towering representative of the princely India, but Akali politics representing SIKHS without available valid reasons could not utilize his services in benefit to the advancement to the CAUSE for SIKHS by not requesting him to lead them for negotiations, neither Patiala Palace displayed keenness for such a political liaison. He ,but natural way fo life appears to have been much more close to family Royal blood – Rajput relatives in India than for cultivation of relationships with Punjab Sikh Misles or common Sikh folk under umbrella of Akali Dal . Mr Jinnah was reportedly keen to sign an agreement with the Maharaja of Patiala to consider his joining of Pakistan. The seniors of Patiala Palace earlier missed a chance involving much larger impact on history, when they ignored opportunity for the taking over the Punjab by review for their treaty with British in India.
Patiala Palace had an opportunity considering for collective effort to protect each other in coming times especially on demise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. But Palace did not risk testing the might of British. Maharaja, Yadavindra Singh was also the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes and he persuaded all the rulers of the Punjab to accede to India. Sardar Patel reported to be initially not against the Sikhs, as for instance, in calling PEPSU, a Sikh Majority area as a Sikh Homeland. But, he soon came under pressure from Mr Nehru who played up on Patel’s soft corner for RSS, which had put Gandhi to death. Mr Nehru was also able to persuade Mr Patel for non growth supportive approach against Sikhs, especially on the question of their identity distinguishen. The history of Congress later on instance of Pt Nehru, ditched Patiala Palace by merger of PEPSU, and the only Sikh majority ruled Indian state, post 1947 to Punjab. This was another Indian (majority Hindus with common point for belief in IDOL worship platform) another open attempt to dilute the Sikh identity, but Patiala House is yet to understand.
H) Many in the than Akali Dal & Sikh leadership had one leg of politics having half or more relatives in Sikh & others in Punjabi Hindu culture resulting in a confused scenario.They further allegedly tried to create impression that Maharaja is not a devote Sikh who had so many queen wives etc .They failed to understand that being a preacher for a religion is different profile than to be known or value good parts of a King /Emperor. Patiala House may have had liberties in conduct of their own personal life style which is not suppose be carried on instructions of a common man ideology.