The Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita is a chapter in the Epic of the Mahabharata. Gita is also addressed to “song or poem,” and there are more than one Gita in the Mahabharata. However, anyone talking about “The Gita” may have referred to the Bhagavad Gita. Bhagavad which itself is an interesting word. Bhaga, , means “lord” or “good fortune, grandeur, loveliness,” etc. The Indo-European meanings have drifted around a bit and in turn, the meaning for bhagavat, , is “fortunate, blessed, adorable, venerable, divine, holy,” etc. So the Bhagavad Gita, is expressed to be the “Song of God,” or of the “Adorable One,” “Blessed One,” “Holy One”. The “Adorable One,” of appears to have been referred to the holly Krishna, , who is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
The point of view is not for the Epic being a devotional one but has a historical and philosophical connections to the civilization. The Gita is a composite document built over time like the larger Mahabharata. Despite the fact that certain parts of Gita when brought on common platform and position developed conveys conflicting messages for influences and values. There are also certain common key issues in all Indian religions like the renunciation of the world, holding ultimate value including Jainism or Buddhism.

II) A group of scholars believe that Bhagavad Gita was composed around fifth to second century BCE. The Bhagavad Gita contains narrations on Mahabharata and also considered a sacred text by the Hindus. The Bhagavad-Gita reportedly found in the monumental and happens to be a historical Epic Mahabharata written by Vedavyasa’. The Bhagavad-Gita is presented as the eternal message of spiritual wisdom from ancient India. The word Gita means song and the word Bhagavad means God, often the Bhagavad-Gita is called the Song of God. Lord Krishna originally spoke the Bhagavad-Gita in India at the holy land of Kuruksetra.

The Mahabharata confirms that Lord Krishna spoke the Bhagavad-Gita to Arjuna at the Battle of Kurukshetra in 3137 B.C. According to some astrological references in the Vedic scriptures, the year 3102 B.C. was the beginning of kali yuga which began 35 years after the battle 5000 years ago. The original language of the Bhagavad-Gita was classical Sanskrit from India. The first English edition of the Bhagavad-Gita was brought out in 1785 by Charles Wilkins in London, England.

This was only 174 years after the translation of the King James Bible in 1611.The Bhagavad-Gita was also translated into Latin in 1823 by Schlegel. It was translated into German in 1826 by Von Humbolt, into French in 1846 by Lassens and it was translated into Greek in 1848 by Galanos. The Hindu myth believes that The Bhagavad-Gita is an accurate, fundamental knowledge about God, the ultimate truth on creation, birth and death, the results of actions, the eternal soul, liberation and the purpose as well as the goal of human existence.

III) The illustrations of the battle of Kurukshetra reportedly fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas stood recorded under the Event titled as the Mahabharata. The Bhagavad Gita begins before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra war on conflict settlement for priorities for “The Field of Righteousness or Truth”. The mind & brain of Pandava prince Arjuna was clouded with doubts on the logistics for battlefield. He on realizing that his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends and revered teachers, he turns to his charioteer and guide, Krishna for advice.

Krishna responding to Arjuna’s confusion and moral dilemma explained his duties as a warrior and prince, elaborating on a variety of other philosophical concepts. He encouraged him “to stop hesitating and fulfill his Kashtriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and kill opponents, irrespective to the closeness or dearness with them. Krishna lectured him to have faith in Almighty while performing God given natural assignment for war.

IV) Krishna therefore displayed no sympathy with Arjuna’s difficulties. “Be a man,” is essentially what he says. Arjuna continues his Lament. “My sacred teachers.” Drona is Arjuna’s teacher. Killing him is shocking to Arjuna for the same kind of reason that Euthyphro prosecuting his father was shocking to Socrates; the teacher (guru) has a sacred office. The saying in India is, “The teacher is God,” because the teacher stands in the place of God to teach religious duties. Krishna eloquently offered the following answers to Arjuna:

The first argument by Krishna was that Arjuna should “cease from sorrow” because he cannot actually kill his relatives. The Spirit in them is immortal and will simply pass on to a new body. Krishna’s second argument is that, even if Arjuna can’t get past the killing part, the truth is that death is simply followed by rebirth, so it amounts to the same thing as the first argument. Again, “cease thou to sorrow”. Krishna’s third argument provides a positive reason, the only one, why Arjuna must fight the battle: It is his dharma, his duty, as a Kshatriya to fight the battle. This historical condition reportedly perturbed Mr M.D.K.C. Gandhi while interpreting the Gita pacifistically that: Kshatriyas really were in the business of fighting and both Krishna and Arjuna were Kshatriyas. Krishna’s argument is given is in this context. Krishna’s fourth and final argument adds an emotional goad to his substantive arguments: If Arjuna doesn’t fight; people will think he is a coward and will insult him. We can’t have that! Indeed, more fights probably result from insults against manhood than from anybody’s sense of duty. Krishna is willing to use both against Arjuna.Krishna wraps up his appeal. Victory or loss doesn’t matter. Loss will simply gain him “glory in heaven.” All that matters is that Arjuna fights the battle.

V) The philosophy summed up by Krishna incidentally played active role when Prophet Muhammad carried invasions on different locations for advancement of his logistics. He motivated his soldiers that, they with grace of Allah, will conquer so & so territories or if you do not succeed, the doors of heaven will get opened to be in the lap of Almighty. Krishna thereafter holding the reins of Arjuna’s chariot extolled and inspired him to do his duty to restore ‘Dharma’. Krishna’s words and the above question-answer session form the content of the Gita.

The clouds of guilt getting cleared from his conscience, Arjuna lifted his bow to wipe the Earth of all evil-doers and supporters of Adharma i.e. unethical acts. Thus Krishna’s Mission accomplished, he returned to his own seaside kingdom of Dwarka on the western coast of India in the present Saurashtra (Gujarat). Pandit Vivekananda, a nineteenth century intellectual for Hindu way of life remarked on the condition differently that, “The Kurukshetra War was only an allegory. When we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil.”

VI)The preface for Bhagavad Gita contains Gita Dhyanam for 9 verses but is not a part of the main Bhagavad Gita. It is commonly published with the Gita as a prefix. The verses of the Gita Dhyanam offer salutations to a variety of sacred scriptures, figures, and entities, characterize the relationship of the Gita to the Upanishads, and affirm the power of divine assistance. It is a common practice to recite these before reading the Bhagavad Gita. It comprises the following 18 sub titled chapters;

Arjuna–Visada yoga ,Sankhya yoga , Gyaana–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, Gyaana–Karma , Sanyasa yoga , Dhyan yoga or Atmasanyam yoga, Gyaana–ViGyaana yoga ,Aksara–Brahma yoga ,Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Visvarupa–Darsana yoga, Bhakti yoga , Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga yoga , Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Purusottama yoga, Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga , Sraddhatraya-Vibhaga yoga, Moksha–Sanyasa yoga.

VII) An intellectual for ancient India, Pandit Dnyaneshwar is referred to have translated and commented on the Bhagavad Gita between 1275–1296 CE in Marathi language in his book Dnyaneshwari. Pandit Chinmayananda, another Hindu Intellectual during his touring lectures attempted to revive the moral and spiritual values of the Hinduism. He presented Gita as a universal scripture stating that it turns a person from a state of agitation and confusion to a state of a better vision along with inner contentment and motivations for dynamic human actions. The teachings of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), a Gaudiya Vasihnava religious organization made concerted efforts in revival for Hindu philosophy, especially in North America, between 1970s and 1980s.